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> Nutritional Analysis of Spirulina, why Superfoods are good for you ...


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Posted: Feb 17 2007, 02:04 PM
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Hiya Pupp ..

I've been meaning to post some info on Natural Food Supplements ..

Naturally ocurring high nutritional content foods .. are far better tolerated and assimilitated than synthetically manufactured vitamin supplements ..

While I think that some good quality supplements are great for alleviating acute
problems .. the daily use of the so called "superfoods'' prevents any kind of
long term micronutrient deficiency ..

The deficiency of micronutrients is a very common occurence .. and is due to the
over processing and additive chemicals in our mass prepared foods ..

There is also the widespread over farming of soils wich tends to produce nutrient
deficient foods ...

Then theres the shipping and storage of fresh vegetables..for example ..
the Vit C content of fresh produce and fruits starts to diminish as soon as it picked .. Vit C is water soluble and not very stable..so you begin to understand what happens when your produce is picked, handled, refrigerated, gassed for ripening , and then finally gets to sit in an air conditioned supermarket where
you finally purchase it ..in its much reduced nutritional state ..compared to when it was picked ..

This is why Naturopaths and Herbalists almost routinely recommend extra supplementation as a daily insurance against poor quality food, toxins in our air and water, and last but not least STRESS ..

I will post an entire article about the effects of stress on the immunes system
and the impact on our nutritional status, in the near future ..


Heres a very good explanation of the nutritional content of Spirulina ..
and why you'll want to include it your daily diet ...

Remember ..its only going to be nutritionally sound if iits ORGANICALLY grown ..
As far as I know .. the only broadly available brand of ORGANIC Spirulina is grown and packaged in Hawaii..
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Spirulina's Nutritional Analysis

Proteins:
The blue-green algae, and Spirulina in particular, have a primitive structure with few starch storage cells and cell membrane proliferation, but rich amounts of ribosomes, the cellular bodies that manufacture protein. This particular arrangement of cellular components allows for rapid photosynthesis and formation of proteins. The lack of hard cellular walls assures that Spirulina protein is rapidly and easily assimilated by consuming organisms.


Spirulina is approximately 65 to 71 percent protein, depending on growing conditions. These proteins are biologically complete, which means they provide all eight essential amino acids in the proper ratios. Most plant foods are not complete proteins because they usually lack one or more amino acids.


Unfortunately, the body cannot store amino acids in anticipation of deficient ones eventually arriving in subsequent meals. To synthesize protein for the body's repair and maintenance, all dietary protein factors must be present simultaneously or the amino acids are wasted.


Furthermore, even if complete protein is consumed, digestive difficulties can prevent assimilation of all needed elements. Spirulina provides all the required amino acids, and in a form that is five times easier to digest than meat or soy protein.



These eight essential amino acids are found in Spirulina:

ISOLEUCINE (4.130/o): Required for optimal growth, intelligence development and nitrogen equilibrium in the body Used to synthesize other non-essential amino acids.

LEUCINE (5.8001o): Stimulator of brain function, increases muscular energy levels.

LYSINE (4.000/o): Building block of blood antibodies, strengthens circulatory system and maintains normal growth of cells.

METHIONINE (2.170/o): Vital lipotropic (fat and lipid metabolizing) amino acid that maintains liver health. An anti-stress factor, it calms the nerves.

PHENYLALANINE (3.950/o): Required by the thyroid gland for production of thyroxine which stimulates metabolic rate.

THREONINE (4.170/o): Improves intestinal competence and digestive assimilation.

TRYPTOPHANE (1.1301o): Increases utilization of B vitamins,improves nerve health and stability of the emotions. Promotes sense of calm.

VALINE (6.0001o): Stimulates mental capacity and muscle coordination.


These are the non-essential amino acids supplied by Spirulina:
Spirulina supplies ten of the twelve non-essential amino acids. "Non-essential" does not mean that these amino acids are not needed by the body, but merely indicates that the body can synthesize them itself if it needs to do so, provided the appropriate nutritional building blocks are available. Nevertheless, the body is better served if these excellent protein components are readily and totally available in dietary sources, since all the amino acids must be on hand as the cells manufacture enzymes, proteins, hormones, brain chemicals and the other products of metabolism. Of the thousands of biochemical substances acting and interacting in the human body, not one is derived from a vacuum; the body is ultimately dependent upon nutrient intake for all of its functions.


ALANINE (5.820/o): Strengthens cellular walls.

ARGININE (5.98%): Important to male sexual health as seminal fluid is 80 percent arginine. Also helps detoxify the blood.

ASPARTIC ACID (6.340/o): Aids transformation of carbohydrates into cellular energy.

CYSTINE (0.670/o): Aids pancreatic health, which stabilizes blood sugar and carbohydrate metabolism. Has been used to alleviate some symptoms of food allergy and intolerance.

GLUTAMIC ACID (8.940/o): With glucose, one of the principal fuels for the brain cells. Has been used to reduce the craving for alcohol and stabilize mental health.

GLYCINE (3.5%): Promotes energy and oxygen use in the cells.

HISTIDINE (1.08%): Strengthens nerve relays, especially in the auditory organs. Has been used to reverse some cases of deafness.

PROLINE (2.970/o): A precursor of glutamic acid.

SERINE (4.00%): Helps form the protective fatty sheaths surrounding nerve fibers.

TYROSINE (4.60%): Slows aging of cells and suppresses hunger centers in the hypothalamus. Can be synthesized from phenylalanine. Involved in proper coloration of hair and skin, including protection from sunburn.



Minerals:
Although proteins are the building blocks of life, many trace minerals can profoundly effect health and metabolism.


The waters Spirulina favors are so saturated with minerals deposited from ancient soils and mountains that no other plants can live there. Because Spirulina thrives in such alkaline waters, it incorporates and synthesizes many minerals and derivative compounds into its cell structure.


Transformed into natural organic forms by Spirulina, minerals become chelated with amino acids and are therefore more easily assimilated by the body. Many times people have ingested large amounts of inorganic minerals without benefit to health because the body does not know what to do with these incompatible forms. In fact, evidence is accumulating that the inorganic minerals can block absorption of the organic forms, leading ultimately to mineral deficiency diseases.


Spirulina contains essential minerals and trace elements absorbed from its growth medium into chelated, easily absorbed forms:


POTASSIUM (15,400 mg/kg): A crucial mineral that regulates body electrolyte balance. Deficiency can cause heart arrest, hypertension, adrenal exhaustion and muscular collapse.

CALCIUM (1,315 mg/kg): The most abundant mineral in the body, it is especially important to bone and dental health, but is also involved in neural transmissions to the muscles. Spirulina supplies about as much calcium, gram for gram, as milk.

ZINC (39 mg/kg): The pivot point of over thirty vital enzymatic reactions, with profound effects on mental health, skin tone, prostate function and healing capacity.

MAGNESIUM (1,915 mg/kg): Deficiency can lead to spasmodic muscle disorders, including cardiac irregularities. Helps assimilation of vitamin C, B vitamins and protein.

MANGANESE (25 mg/kg): Activates enzyme systems, along with zinc. Promotes activity of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and helps stabilize blood sugar.

SELENIUM (0.40 ppm): Originally believed to be a toxic heavy metal, but now known to be necessary for health. It retards aging, harmful oxidation and free radical formation, reduces the toxic effect of carcinogens, and improves cardiac efficiency.

IRON (580 mg/kg): Promotes formation of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying blood pigment found in healthy red blood cells. Iron deficiency is most common among women in their reproductive years.

PHOSPHORUS (8,942 mg/kg): The second most abundant mineral in the human body, it is found in practically every cell. Functions with calcium to maintain bone density. Helps to digest carbohydrates and the B vitamins niacin and riboflavin.


Vitamins:
Spirulina supplies several of the vitamins that all living beings need to carry on metabolic processes:


PYRIDOXINE or B6 (3 mg/kg): Involved in breakdown and assimilation of protein. Protects cardiac health, reduces edema and stabilizes female hormone levels. Dr. Carl Pfeiffer has demonstrated that B6, together with the mineral zinc, can cure some forms of schizophrenia.

BIOTIN (0.4 mg/kg): An enzyme that carries CO, during certain biochemical reactions involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Also acts as a co-enzyme in the assimilation of other B-complex vitamins. Biotin is destroyed by eating raw egg whites and some kinds of raw fish.

COBALAMIN or B12 (2 mg/kg): The most difficult of all vitamins to obtain from vegetable sources. Spirulina is extremely rich in this rare vitamin, containing 250 percent more than beef liver, previously thought to be nature's richest source. A single serving of Spirulina easily exceeds the Recommended Daily Allowance of 1.5 to 3 mcg daily. A B12 deficiency results in pernicious anemia, nerve degeneration, premature senility, pronounced fatigue and mental illnesses resembling schizophrenia.

PANTOTHENIC ACID (11 mg/kg): The "stress" vitamin, used by the adrenal glands, along with cholesterol and vitamin C, to manufacture cortisone and other steroids in response to physical and mental stress. Deficiency encourages sensitivity to allergy, infection and degenerative diseases such as arthritis and rheumatism. Ulcers and hypoglycemia have also been associated with shortage of this vitamin.

FOLIC ACID (0.5 mg/kg): Essential to proper hemoglobin formation in red blood cells. Deficiency results in anemia, poor growth, skin pigmentation disorders and premature graying of the hair.

INOSITOL (350 mg/kg): Vital lipotropic nutrient that sustains liver health and helps detoxify carcinogens, particularly excess female hormones. Helps normalize blood cholesterol levels. With choline, inositol is used by the liver to manufacture lecithin. Inositol is the second most abundant vitamin in the body, after niacin. Recent studies indicate that inositol, with biotin, reduces loss of scalp hair.

NIACIN (118 mg/kg): Also known as nicotinic acid and niacinamide, which is an alternative form, niacin is essential to mental health. Dr. Abram Hoffer, a renowned pioneer in orthomolecular psychiatry, has completely relieved schizophrenic symptoms using niacin. The Physicians' Desk Reference, a pharmaceutical text used by doctors when prescribing medication, recognizes niacin as an effective cholesterol lowering agent.

RIBOFLAVIN or B2 (40 mg/kg): The most common vitamin deficiency is that of riboflavin and results in cataracts, failing vision, watery eyes and uncontrollable eczema.

THIAMINE or B 1 (55 mg/kg): A co-enzyme in the breakdown of dietary carbohydrate. Maintains levels of glucose in the blood. Deficiency results in weakness, cardiac damage, abdominal distention and poor oxygenation. Severe shortage results in death; critical toxemia develops from unmetabolized carbohydrate fragments.

TOCOPHEROL or vitamin E (190 mg/kg): Spirulina contains more vitamin E per gram than pure wheat germ. This nutrient protects heart and vascular health, promotes oxygenation of cells, and retards aging.



Carotenoids:
Some substances in plant foods are not true vitamins, but provide the precursors from which the body can then synthesize the appropriate vitamins. The carotenoid compounds of Spirulina are of this nature, since they are used to produce vitamin A.


True vitamin A is found in the pre-formed state only in animal sources, such as liver. This is the form of vitamin A sometimes associated with toxicity and overdose, since it is fat-soluble and is not readily excreted from the body.


In contrast, the carotenoid complexes found in vegetable foods are converted to vitamin A only as it is needed, thus minimizing the dangers of toxicity. Spirulina and other algae are a primary source of vitamin A precursors - it is from algae carotenoids that fish livers derive and concentrate vitamin A.


Spirulina contains the yellow/orange pigments cryptoxanthine and beta-carotene from which vitamin A can be made. Two units of carotene will normally yield one unit of complete vitamin A, if required by the body. Spirulina contains 4,000 mg/kg carotenoids in these forms:



Alpha-carotene -- traces
Beta-carotene -- 1,700 mg/kg
Xanthophylis -- 1,000 mg/kg
Cryptoxanthin -- 556 mg/kg
Echinenone -- 439 mg/kg
Zeaxanthin -- 316 mg/kg
Lutein -- 289 mg/kg




Enzymatic pigments:
While the protein, mineral and vitamin value of Spirulina is impressive, this minute organism is also rich in pigments that are bio-chemically important to life. Without pigments, organisms could not synthesize many of the enzymes necessary for balancing metabolism.


Chlorophyll

The most visible pigment in Spirulina is chlorophyll, a green molecule common to plants. It releases ions when struck by the energy of sunlight. These free ions proceed to stimulate the biochemical reactions that form proteins, vitamins and sugars.


Chlorophyll is sometimes called `green blood" because of its similarity to the hemoglobin molecule found in human blood cells. In fact, both are constructed of almost identical molecular structure called pyrrole rings, and both substances are chemically known as "porphyrin pigments" by scientists.


The difference is that chlorophyll contains a magnesium ion at its core, while hemoglobin contains an iron molecule. Magnesium imparts a green color to the chlorophyll molecule and is involved in synthesis of other materials, while iron gives hemoglobin a red coloration and changes the function of the porphyrin molecule to respiration and breakdown of materials.


It is believed that if chlorophyll is ingested with sufficient iron, the magnesium can be displaced to yield a hemoglobin molecule. Experiments in Japan have demonstrated that Spirulina has a marked positive effect on anemia, possibly due to the conversion of chlorophyll into hemoglobin. Of course, the high nutrient density of Spirulina, especially the blood-building vitamins B12 and folic acid and the amino acids, are also useful in treating cases of anemia.


Chlorophyll has other positive benefits to the body. It increases peristaltic action and thus relieves constipation, and also normalizes the secretion of digestive acids. It soothes the inflammation and reduces the excess pepsin secretion associated with gastric ulcers.


During World War 11, the drying action of chlorophyll and its antiseptic qualities made it a common first-aid measure to prevent festering of wounds. In addition, chlorophyll soothes swelling and promotes granulation, the process that regenerates new tissue over injuries.


Chlorophyll appears to promote regeneration of damaged liver cells, and also increases circulation to all the organs by dilating blood vessels. In the heart, chlorophyll aids in transmission of nerve impulses that control contraction. The heart rate is slowed, yet each contraction is increased in power, thus improving the overall efficiency of cardiac work.


Phycocyanin

The pigment which gives Spirulina its blue cast is phycocyanin, found in concentrations of about 7 percent, compared to the I percent chlorophyll content most commonly found. Phycocyanin is related to the human pigment bilirubin, which is important to healthy liver function and digestion of amino acids.


Porphyrin

Another important pigment is porphyrin, a red compound that forms the active nucleus of hemoglobin. Related to this structure is the polypyrrole molecule of B12, which is essential to the formation of healthy red blood cells.


These and several lesser pigments such as phycoerythrin, tetrapyrrole, phytonadione and the carotenoids are not just the "color" of living organisms, but are used to carry on metabolic processes throughout the body. Without them, enzymatic reactions would be reduced until cellular disintegration occurred.




Fats, sugars, salts and calories:
It is probably hard to imagine that a concentrated source of nutrients such as Spirulina is not also loaded with fats, starches and calories. Amazingly, Spirulina is only 7 percent lipid, and most of that is in the form of essential fatty acids that promote cholesterol normalization. The essential fatty acids sometimes called vitamin F, include linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid. They are used by the body to manufacture Prostaglandins, the hormonal regulators of blood pressure and capillary resilience.


The essential fatty acids are involved in respiration in all the cells, and are especially important to oxygen transport. They affect the health of the hair, skin and nails, and help break up cholesterol in the blood stream. They are not dangerous fat but are absolutely vital to health.


Spirulina contains very little starch or sugar. What carbohydrate it supplies, roughly 10 to 15 percent, is primarily in the form of rhamnose and glycogen. These two polysaccharides are easily absorbed by human cells with minimal intervention by insulin. Hence, Spirulina sugars provide speedy energy, without taxing the pancreas or precipitating hypoglycemia.


From a caloric standpoint, Spirulina nutrition is economical. There are only approximately 3.9 calories per gram of protein obtained from Spirulina. You would have to consume about 65 calories of beef to obtain a gram of protein. The average 500 mg tablet of Spirulina contains only one to two calories!


Some people are concerned about sodium in their diets, and have therefore avoided seaweed foods such as nori, wakami and kombu. These kelp foods are very nutritious, but they do contain significant sodium amounts. Spirulina avoids the sodium problems of algae that grow in the sea, yielding only .206 mg of sodium per tablet. Most hypertension patients are restricted to 2,000 mg or less of sodium per day; Spirulina has such small amounts of sodium that no danger is presented to persons on a salt-restricted diet.

The information provided above is intended for educational purposes only. It is not meant to either directly or indirectly give medical advice or prescribe treatment. Unless specifically referenced, the information has not been scientifically validated or approved by any government or regulatory agency. Please consult with your physician or other licensed health care professional for medical diagnosis, prescription, and treatment.



C:\Documents and Settings\DrMags\My Documents\My Webs\Spirulina's Nutritional Analysis.htm

See the next post for more about this ..


Hope this helps ..

Best Wishes ..
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Posted: Feb 17 2007, 02:11 PM
Quote Post
CONTD from the above post ...

Hi all ..

Heres some more information about Spirulina ..

There is also LOTS of references to Scientific articles to corroborate
the above articles ..

I always used to day to my patients .."dont take may word for it''.. research
the subject and make an INFORMED decision ...

Your health and well being is worth the time and the effort ..

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Latest Scientific Research on Spirulina:
Effects on the AIDS Virus, Cancer and the Immune System.

by Richard Kozlenko DPM, Ph.D M.P.H. and Ronald H. Henson.© Copyright 1997


Spirulina is gaining more attention from medical scientists as a nutraceutical and source of potential pharmaceuticals. There are several new peer reviewed scientific studies about Spirulina's ability to inhibit viral replication, strengthen both the cellular and humoral arms of the immune system and cause regression and inhibition of cancers. While these studies are preliminary and more research is needed, the results so far are exciting.

Potent Anti-Viral Activity
In April 1996, scientists from the Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, and Earthrise Farms, Calipatria, California, announced on-going research, saying "Water extract of Spirulina platensis inhibits HIV-1 replication in human derived T-cell lines and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A concentration of 5-10 µg/ml was found to reduce viral production" 1.

HIV-1 is the AIDS virus. Small amounts of Spirulina extract reduced viral replication while higher concentrations totally stopped its reproduction. Importantly, with a therapeutic index of >100, Spirulina extract was non-toxic to the human cells at concentrations stopping viral replication.

Another group of medical scientists has published new studies regarding a purified water extract unique to Spirulina named Calcium-Spirulan. It inhibits replication of HIV-1, Herpes Simplex, Human Cytomegalovirus, Influenza A virus, Mumps virus and Measles virus in-vitro yet is very safe for human cells. It protects human and monkey cells from viral infection in cell culture. According to peer reviewed scientific journal reports this extract, "holds great promise for treatment of ...HIV-1, HSV-1, and HCM infections, which is particularly advantageous for AIDS patients who are prone to these life-threatening infections." 8.

Calcium-Spirulan is a polymerized sugar molecule unique to Spirulina containing both Sulfur and Calcium. Hamsters treated with this water soluble extract had better recovery rates when infected with an otherwise lethal Herpes virus 9.

How does it work? When attacking a cell, a virus first attaches itself to the cell membrane. However, because of Spirulina extract, the virus cannot penetrate the cell membrane to infect the cell. The virus is stuck, unable to replicate. It is eventually eliminated by the body's natural defenses. Spirulina extracts may become useful therapeutics that could help AIDS patients lead longer more normal lives 1, 8, 9.


What Is Spirulina?
Spirulina, (rhymes with 'ballerina'), is a traditional food of some Mexican and African peoples. It is a planktonic blue-green algae found in warm water alkaline volcanic lakes. Wild Spirulina sustains huge flocks of flamingos in the alkaline East African Rift Valley Lakes. It possesses an amazing ability to thrive in conditions much too harsh for other algae. As might be expected, it has a highly unusual nutritional profile. Spirulina has a 62% amino acid content, is the world's richest natural source of Vitamin B-12 and contains a whole spectrum of natural mixed carotene and xanthophyll phytopigments. Spirulina has a soft cell wall made of complex sugars and protein, and is different from most other algae in that it is easily digested.

Millions of people worldwide eat Spirulina cultivated in scientifically designed algaefarms. Current world production of Spirulina for human consumption is more than one thousand metric tons annually. The United States leads world production followed by Thailand, India and China. More countries are planning production as they realize it is a valuable strategic resource.

Differences between spirulina, chlorella and 'wild' blue green algae.
Spirulina is not Chlorella or the blue-green algae harvested from Klamath Lake Oregon. Chlorella, a green micro-algae, is a nutritious food but does not have the same anti-viral, anti-cancer and immune stimulating properties of Spirulina. The Chlorella cell wall is made of indigestible cellulose, just like green grass, while the cell wall of Spirulina is made of complexed proteins and sugars.


The Klamath Lake blue-green algae has the scientific name Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. It is not the same as Spirulina. While scientific literature includes information concerning the potential toxicity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, there are few peer reviewed scholarly scientific papers regarding the therapeutic benefit of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. In contrast, the scientific literature is full of information concerning the benefits and safety of humans and animals eating Chlorella and Spirulina 4.

Anti-Cancer Effects
Several studies show Spirulina or its extracts can prevent or inhibit cancers in humans and animals. Some common forms of cancer are thought to be a result of damaged cell DNA running amok, causing uncontrolled cell growth. Cellular biologists have defined a system of special enzymes called Endonuclease which repair damaged DNA to keep cells alive and healthy. When these enzymes are deactivated by radiation or toxins, errors in DNA go unrepaired and, cancer may develop. In vitro studies suggest the unique polysaccharides of Spirulina enhance cell nucleus enzyme activity and DNA repair synthesis. This may be why several scientific studies, observing human tobacco users and experimental cancers in animals, report high levels of suppression of several important types of cancer. The subjects were fed either whole Spirulina or treated with its water extracts 3,12,13.

Strengthens Immune System
Spirulina is a powerful tonic for the immune system. In scientific studies of mice, hamsters, chickens, turkeys, cats and fish, Spirulina consistently improves immune system function. Medical scientists find Spirulina not only stimulates the immune system, it actually enhances the body's ability to generate new blood cells.

Important parts of the immune system, the Bone Marrow Stem Cells, Macrophages, T-cells and Natural Killer cells, exhibit enhanced activity. The Spleen and Thymus glands show enhanced function. Scientists also observe Spirulina causing macrophages to increase in number, become "activated" and more effective at killing germs.

Feeding studies show that even small amounts of Spirulina build up both the humoral and cellular arms of the immune system 16. Spirulina accelerates production of the humoral system, (antibodies and cytokines), allowing it to better protect against invading germs. The cellular immune system includes T-cells, Macrophages, B-cells and the anti-cancer Natural Killer cells. These cells circulate in the blood and are especially rich in body organs like the liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, adenoids, tonsils and bone marrow. Spirulina up-regulates these key cells and organs, improving their ability to function in spite of stresses from environmental toxins and infectious agents 2,10,12,14,15,16.


Spirulina Phycocyanin Builds Blood
Polypeptide called Phycocyanin. Studies show that Phycocyanin affects the stem cells found in bone marrow. Stem cells are "Grandmother" to both the white blood cells that make up the cellular immune system and red blood cells that oxygenate the body.

Chinese scientists document Phycocyanin stimulating hematopoiesis, (the creation of blood), emulating the affect of the hormone erythropoetin, (EPO). EPO is produced by healthy kidneys and regulates bone marrow stem cell production of red blood cells. Chinese scientists claim Phycocyanin also regulates production of white blood cells, even when bone marrow stem cells are damaged by toxic chemicals or radiation 17.


Based on this effect, Spirulina is approved in Russia as a "medicine food" for treating radiation sickness. The Children of Chernobyl suffer radiation poisoning from eating food grown on radioactive soil. Their bone marrow is damaged, rendering them immunodeficient. Radiation damaged bone marrow cannot produce normal red or white blood cells. The children are anemic and suffer from terrible allergic reactions. Children fed just five grams of Spirulina in tablets each day make dramatic recoveries within six weeks. Children not given Spirulina remain ill 6.

Other Potential Health Benefits
Spirulina is one of the most concentrated natural sources of nutrition known. It contains all the essential amino acids, rich in chlorophyll, beta-carotene and its co-factors, and other natural phytochemicals. Spirulina is the only green food rich in GLA essential fatty acid. GLA stimulates growth in some animals and makes skin and hair shiny and soft yet more durable. GLA also acts as an anti-inflammatory, sometimes alleviating symptoms of arthritic conditions.

Spirulina acts as a functional food, feeding beneficial intestinal flora, especially Lactobacillus and Bifidus. Maintaining a healthy population of these bacteria in the intestine reduces potential problems from opportunistic pathogens like E. coli and Candida albicans. Studies show when Spirulina is added to the diet, beneficial intestinal flora increase.

Conclusion
Based on this preliminary research, scientists hope the use of Spirulina and its extracts may reduce or prevent cancers and viral diseases. Bacterial or parasitic infections may be prevented or respond better to treatment and wound healing may improve. Symptoms of anemia, poisoning and immunodeficiency may be alleviated. Scientists in the USA, Japan, China, Russia, India and other countries are studying this remarkable food to unlock its potential. More research is needed to determine its usefulness against AIDS and other killer diseases. However, it is already clear this safe and natural food provides concentrated nutritional support for optimum health and wellness.



References:


Ayehunie S., Belay A., Hu Y., Baba T., Ruprecht R., 7th IAAA Conference, Knysna, South Africa April 17, 1996. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis).

Baojiang G., et al, Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Algal Biotechnology, April 25-27, 1994, p. 24. Study on Effect and Mechanism of Polysaccharides of Spirulina platensis on Body Immune Functions Improvement.

Babu.,M., et al, Nutrition and Cancer 1995, V. 24, No. 2, p.197-202. Evaluation of Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer with Spirulina fusiformis.

Belay A., Ota Y., Miyakawa K., Shimamatsu H., Journal of Applied Phycology 5:235-241, 1993. Current Knowledge on Potential Health Benefits of Spirulina.

Carmichael, et al Scientific American January 1995. "The Toxins of Cyanobacteria."
Evets L.B. et al Grodenski State Medical University, January 15, 1994 Russian Federation Committee of Patents and Trade, Patent Number: (19) RU (11) 2005486 C1 (51) 5 A 61K35/80. Means to Normalize the levels of Immunoglobulin E Using the Food Supplement Spirulina.

Fukino H., Takagi Y., Yamane Y., Eisei Kagaku 36: 5.,1990. Effect of Spirulina Platensis on the renal toxicity induced by inorganic mercury and cisplatin.

Hayashi T. & Hayashi K., et al, Journal of Natural Products 1996, Vol. 59, No. 1, 83-87, American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy. Calcium Spirulan, an Inhibitor of Enveloped Virus Replication, from a Blue-Green Alga Spirulina platensis.

Hayashi K., et al, Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 7, 76-80 (1993). An Extract from Spirulina platensis is a Selective Inhibitor of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Penetration into HeLa Cells.

Hayashi O., et al, Journal of Nutritional Sciences and Vitaminology, 40, 431-441, 1994. Enhancement of Antibody Production in Mice by Dietary Spirulina platensis.

Kolman A., et al Toxicology Letters, 48 (1989) 165-169 Elsevier. Radioprotective effect of extract from Spirulina platensis in mouse bone marrow cells studied by using the micronucleus test.

Lisheng L., et al, Marine Sciences, Qindao China, N. 5, 1991, p. 33-38. Inhibitive Effective and Mechanism of Polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis on Transplanted Tumor Cells in Mice.

Pang Qishen et al, Acta Genetica Sinica (Chinese Journal of Genetics), V.15(5) p. 374-381, 1988. Enhancement of Endonuclease Activity and repair DNA Synthesis by Polysaccharide of Spirulina platensis.

Qureshi M.A., Kidd M.T., and Ali R.A., Journal of Nutritional Immunology V.3(4) 1995, pages 35-45. Spirulina platensis Extract Enhances Chicken Macrophage Functions After in vitro Exposure.

Qureshi M.A., Ali R.A., Immunopharmacology, Jan. 1996. Phagocytic potential of Feline macrophages after exposure to a water soluble extract of spirulina in vitro.

Qureshi M.A., Garlich J.D., Kidd M.T., Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 1996 (submitted), "Dietary Spirulina platensis Enhances Humoral and Cell-mediated Immune Functions In Chickens".
Zhang C., et al, 1994 Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Alga Biotechnology, April 25-27, p.58. The Effects of Polysaccharide and Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis variety on Peripheral blood and Hematopoietic system of Bone Marrow in Mice.

Hope this helps ..

Best Wishes and Good Health ..

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Posted: Feb 17 2007, 07:40 PM
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Naturally ocurring high nutritional content foods .. are far better tolerated and assimilitated than synthetically manufactured vitamin supplements ..

I totally agree Noddy.

Here's how I know what is good or not good for me as far as nutritional content.

I usually go for a day or 2 without eating...nothing... just juice or maybe some fruit.

When I get really hungry, I cannot eat any crud... only whole natural foods... like a home cooked meal with meat, fish or seafood, potatoes, corn, veggies, bread and milk of course.

TV dinners like Swansons or fast food like McDonalds, or most any of the fast food places, are not always nutritious food to me and it will make me nauseous.

"In N Out Burger" is my pick for the most nutritious fast food burger joint.

Bottom line...

Processed foods are not healthy for us. Avoid them unless you have no choice.

Thanks for the post Noddy!




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Posted: Feb 18 2007, 07:11 AM
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Hiya Mark..

Glad you liked the article .. and you're welcome !!!!

quote ..

'' Processed foods are not healthy for us. Avoid them unless you have no choice.''

This is the main problem .. processed foods ..

The process of removing certain food components from mass produced foods
in order to stop them spoiling and increase their shelf life ..
( translate as increase the profit on their product ..)..started around the beginning of the industrial revolution .. with the refining of flour from wholemeal to white flour ..

This removes the ''germ'' from the wheat .. the germ of course being the most nutritious part ..and the part that spoils quickly ..

In a move that precedes modern advertising by centuries..the milling companies
cunningly started a campaign to demonise the ''old'' wholemeal flour .. by insinuating that only peasants ate the more nutritious wholemeal flour that still contained the all important wheat germ .. thus turnng white flour into a ''prestige''
food ..

As time went on .. the same thing happened with rice .. the brown rice is just rice with the outside germ still on .. but again .. it doesnt keep well .. so polished white rice became another prestige food ..

Widespread use of white rice as staple .. leaves the population open to beri beri ..
a B12 deficiency .. the outside germ of the grain has high concentrations og essential B group vitamins as well as vit E..

So, not only are you purchasing food that has been stripped of its nutrition when you buy processed food .. but, you are also increasing the profits of these companies and making them stronger and more competitive by doing so ..

In effect rewarding them with your loyalty as a customer .. while they sell you
a product that has little or no nutritional content .. not to mention the flavor enhancers, preservatives ,synthetic vitamins, and food colorings ..

Chemicals that severely tax our physiololgy,cause childhood behavior problems,
allergies, obesity etc etc etc ...

I'll stop ranting now lol.gif


Best wishes ..
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