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1. U.S. NEWS MEDIA CAN LEGALLY LIE TO YOU
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3. NEW FLU VACCINE IS LOADED WITH MERCURY
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5. ASPARTAME IS HARMFUL
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> The threat from life on Mars, Potentially deadly microorganisms


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Posted: Dec 4 2004, 09:39 PM
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They apparently found out that there's some type of life on Mars and they're worried about us getting contaminated by it and our germs contaminating it. From what I've heard, the level of methane in the atmosphere is increasing and they're claiming that they don't know what's causing it. rolleyesNEW.gif

December 03, 2004

The threat from life on Mars

By Nigel Hawkes

Earth’s defences may need to be boosted against risk of potentially deadly microbes returning on space probes

EARTH must take precautions to avoid contamination from lifeforms that must now be presumed to exist on Mars, leading scientists gave warning yesterday.

Potentially deadly microorganisms could be returned to Earth on a probe which is being planned to collect samples from the Martian surface.

The warning comes after a detailed scientific analysis of data sent back by the roving vehicle Opportunity which landed on Mars on January 25.

Jeffrey Kargel of the US Geological Survey said that protection of our own planet from alien forms of life requires the assumption that Martian life exists. “Before proceeding with sample returns or human missions to Mars, we must review measures for planetary biological protection.”

His warning appears in Science magazine in an article accompanying the first formal publication of the mass of data from Opportunity, which continues to operate on the Martian surface.

The search for life on Mars, now more than a century old, is still not finally resolved. But the odds that life existed there and may still exist are shortening, according to planetary experts, Dr Kargel said.

Nobody any longer expects Martian life forms to be anything like those on Earth. But there remains a possibility that bacteria or other microscopic organisms may survive in regions where there is still water. On Earth, almost every imaginable habitat, including deep underground, has specialised bacteria — called extremophiles — living and thriving.

The risks are twofold: probes sent from Earth may contaminate Mars with terrestrial bacteria, wrecking future studies of Martian life; or, more important, bacteria brought back from Mars may contaminate the Earth with unpredictable effects.

Similar precautions were taken at the time of the Apollo Moon landings. Astronauts returned to Earth were kept in quarantine after they landed for fear they might be infected with a lunar bug. None was.

Although the presence of water on the red planet can be considered proved, of life there are only hints. One is the presence of the gas methane, which might be produced by forms of life. On Earth, life can exist in areas as acidic and salty as Meridiani Planum, where Opportunity landed — examples are the ancient mines of Rio Tinto in Andalucia, Spain, or the salty Permian Basin in Texas. But few earthly species survive in environments that are at the same time very cold, very acidic, and very salty — and none that do survive in such conditions produce methane.

“But maybe on Mars they do,” says Dr Kargel, the author of a recent book on the latest ideas about Mars. Or maybe, he suggests, the organisms that produced the Martian methane live in areas more hospitable than Meridiani Planum.

Analysing the data collected by Opportunity, a team led by the rovers’ principal investigator, Dr Steve Squyres, of Cornell University, concludes that the sedimentary rocks found by Opportunity preserve a record of environmental conditions different from any on Mars today.

“Liquid water was once present intermittently at the Martian surface at Meridiani, and at times it saturated the subsurface,” the team concludes. “Because liquid water is a prerequisite for life, we infer that conditions at Meridiani may have been habitable for some period of time in Martian history.”

Opportunity has explored two craters, Eagle and Endurance, near its landing site. In both areas, layers in the bedrock showed that it had been laid down as sediments, implying past oceans and voids in the rock were probably caused by the dissolution of salt.

Opportunity also found quantities of small spheres, named “blueberries” — even though they are grey, not blue. These marbles consist of the iron-rich mineral haematite. Similar spheres have been found in the deserts of southern Utah, formed as iron-rich water seeped through sandstone.

The first idea that Mars might contain life came from the astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli, who thought that he saw canals when he looked at Mars through a telescope at the end of the 19th century. H.G.Wells popularised the idea in The War of the Worlds, published in 1898.

NATIVES OF THE RED PLANET

Named after the Roman god of war for its angry red appearance, Mars is about half the size of the Earth and is one and a half times further from the Sun

Mars has clouds, weather and winds. Its atmosphere is thin, consisting mainly of carbon dioxide

The surface of Mars is a frozen, rock-strewn desert, with sweeping dunes and huge craters. Its craters and volcanoes are far larger than any found on Earth. The largest volcano, Olympus Mons, is 78,000 feet high

In 1976, two Viking landers arrived on the surface of Mars looking for life. They found none

A meteorite from Mars found in the Antarctic seemed to contain structures suggestive of life and reignited the possibility that Mars had once been home to life in a microscopic form

A belief that Mars once contained water — and may still — was confirmed this year by the Opportunity and Spirit rovers. But Beagle 2, the British probe designed to search for life, disappeared without trace and is presumed to have crashed into the Martian surface

Some time in the next decade Nasa plans to bring back samples from Mars that may answer questions about Martian life

http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-1385572,00.html



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Posted: Dec 4 2004, 09:56 PM
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They apparently found out that there's some type of life on Mars and they're worried about us getting contaminated by it and our germs contaminating it. From what I've heard, the level of methane in the atmosphere is increasing and they're claiming that they don't know what's causing it.


Most likely subterranean microbes staying closer to whatever moisture they can find.

QUOTE
Potentially deadly microorganisms could be returned to Earth on a probe which is being planned to collect samples from the Martian surface.


If these microbes can survive the coldness of space, and chunks of Mars has fallen to earth before. Probably thousands of times or more than the one piece found in Antarctica. I would assume that if anything these microbes have probably already been here. Who knows maybe we'll find out that's where mitochondria came from hehe. Infested Mitochondrial Eve way back when in the congo.

Cool post Seralia, thanks for the heads up. ShockedMouse.gif danger.gif




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user posted imageUhhh he can't read and stuff...he's like illegitimate or something user posted image 
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Posted: Dec 4 2004, 10:35 PM
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Potentially deadly microorganisms could be returned to Earth on a probe which is being planned to collect samples from the Martian surface.


So they wish to chance this by bringing samples back anyways?
pissed.gif

"Oh, OOPS.... sorry guys, we knew it might happen but we just had to bring back some dirt anyways."
blinkNEW.gif

I think they should first test some more before bringing back rocks and dirt.
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QUOTE
Mars has clouds, weather and winds. Its atmosphere is thin, consisting mainly of carbon dioxide

EARTHS possible FUTURE
danger.gif




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"Ye shall know them by their fruits"
~ Matthew 7:16

"Believe nothing. No matter where you read it, or who said it, even if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common sense."
~ Buddha
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Posted: Dec 4 2004, 11:21 PM
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Most likely subterranean microbes staying closer to whatever moisture they can find.


From what I've heard lately, there seems to be more than just microbial life on Mars Parinthian and if the reports of the increase of the methane in the atmosphere is correct, then I'd have to say that there is at least some type of plant life and perhaps even some type of wildlife that may have survived. There definitely seems to be a relationship between the climate changes on Mars and the amount of methane that is produced and if my information is correct, then it should be almost spring there.

QUOTE
If these microbes can survive the coldness of space, and chunks of Mars has fallen to earth before. Probably thousands of times or more than the one piece found in Antarctica. I would assume that if anything these microbes have probably already been here. Who knows maybe we'll find out that's where mitochondria came from hehe. Infested Mitochondrial Eve way back when in the congo.


I'd have to agree with you that whatever microbial life was on Mars is probably here already and that bringing any microbes from mars might not cause much of a problem. And even if they did cause a problem, the astronauts on the space station , shuttle or a potential moon base would be the ones to find out about it because, depending on the time table, they are planning to study them in space before they even think about bringing them back to earth. Of course NASA did let one probe, that was carrying samples from space, crash land in the desert which could have caused some problems if it had picked up some type of hazardous material. rolleyesNEW.gif

Then of course the Russians let their space station, which had some nasty stuff growing in it, fall into the ocean instead of blowing it up into little pieces to make sure that everything burned up in the atmosphere. whistlingNEW2.gif

QUOTE
I think they should first test some more before bringing back rocks and dirt.


I agree PuPP. They should do a lot more testing before even considering on bringing anything back. These people are the ones who sent a probe crashing into the atmosphere of one of the planets because they thought that it may have been contaminated by some bugs from earth and didn't want it to contaminate one of the moons or something like that but they don't seem to be too worried about bringing samples back to the earth from other planets as well as outer space and contaminating the earth with them. wackoNEW.gif


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Posted: Dec 6 2004, 09:25 PM
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Great stuff !
I started a thread on GLP about the Galileo probe and the Prometheus Project futures of sending nuclear powered probes to Europa to melt thru the ice and explore the ocean below, when they dumped Galileo into Jupiter to not contaminate Europa in the first place.


"But few earthly species survive in environments that are at the same time very cold, very acidic, and very salty — and none that do survive in such conditions produce methane."

Mars Salt lake microbes
Scientists Finding Strange Life Forms in Great Salt Lake
May. 31, 2004

Ed Yeates Reporting

A consortium of scientists, including a Utah biologist, say some weird creatures found in the Great Salt Lake might help unravel some of the mysteries on Mars.

Though the Great Salt Lake is a dead sea - drying up even more this year from years of drought - it´s far from dead. On the northern arm of the lake microbiologists from Westminster College in Salt Lake have been taking samples of water.

With levels now at a 30-year low, the salt in portions of the shrinking lake has reached saturation levels ten times the salinity of seawater. Westminster, the University of Maryland and George Mason University are not only finding life where life shouldn´t exist, but life, perhaps like nothing of this earth.

Instead of the rods, spheres and spiral shapes microbiologists are familiar with, they´re seeing organisms shaped like pyramids, triangles, squares and crescents.

Dr. Bonnie Baxter, Westminster College Microbiologist: "Completely novel sequences that don´t match up with anything in the databases. And one of our genome guys who was taking a look at these said this looks like alien DNA. It doesn´t match anything we have on earth."

Dr. Baxter and her colleagues say, why not believe that what´s happening to the Great Salt Lake right now, at one time happened on the planet Mars.

The Mars Rover uncovered what appears to be a very large dried up lake bed similar to the Great Basin. What´s gradually happening to our own dead sea could have happened on the red planet a long, long time ago. If so, the unique pinkish organisms inside salt crystals from dried up portions of our own lake might be inside similar salt formations on Mars.

Baxter: "There was a group of scientists a couple of years ago who actually got some organisms out of some 250-million year old formations and were able to bring them back to life."

Inside Westminster´s lab, Dr. Bonnie Baxter and her team can easily revive the organisms inside the Salt Lake crystals. The Great Salt Lake scientific consortium would love to see what might happen now if you could bring pieces of salt formations from Mars back to earth.

And it´s not just the mysteries of Mars. These unusual organisms which survive extremes of heat, cold, acidity, pressure, radiation and salinity might also hold secrets for the development of new drugs.

http://tv.ksl.com/index.php?nid=5&sid=97513

===============================
http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov/comets/giotto.html

Water accounted for about 80% by volume of all of the material being thrown out by the comet. Seven jets were identifed which threw out 3 tons/sec of material. The largest grain detected was 40mg, though the large particle that hit the spacecraft was estimated to be from 0.1 to 1 gram. The data from the plasma and ion mass spectrometer instruments indicated

that the surface of Comet Halley is

***covered in a layer of organic material."

http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0312639
This paper reports the extraordinary biology of the microorganisms from the mysterious red rain of Kerala, India

. These chemosynthetic organisms grow optimally at an extreme high temperature of 300 degrees C in hydrothermal conditions and can metabolize inorganic and organic compounds including hydrocarbons. Stages found in their life cycle show reproduction by a special multiple fission process and the red cells found in the red rain are identified as the resting spores of these microbes. While these extreme hyperthermophiles contain proteins, our study shows the absence of DNA in these organisms, indicating a new primitive domain of life with alternate thermostable genetics. This new biology proves our earlier hypothesis that these microbes are of extraterrestrial origin and also supports our earlier argument that the mysterious red rain of Kerala is due to the cometary delivery of the red spores into the stratosphere above Kerala.



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Posted: Dec 7 2004, 10:58 PM
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I wasn't aware that they had found salt on Mars for some reason Vianova. blinkNEW.gif I had to look it up and it was Spirit that detected salt in June.

Martian salt adds to case for ancient water

Spirit rover detects concentrations beneath surface

The Associated Press
Updated: 5:19 p.m. ET June 8, 2004

QUOTE
LOS ANGELES - NASA’s Spirit rover has found concentrated salt below the surface of Mars, offering more evidence of past water activity, mission scientists said Tuesday.

The six-wheeled robot found the salt while analyzing the composition of a trench it had dug in a large crater. Scientists believe the salt may have been deposited after water drained through the soil, dissolving materials in rocks.


http://msnbc.msn.com/id/5166705/

It was reported by NASA on Tuesday June 8 that Spirit had found salt and the article about the Great Salt Lake was written on May 31 which I find to be just a little bit suspicious but this one part of the May article is just plain weird.

QUOTE
Instead of the rods, spheres and spiral shapes microbiologists are familiar with, they´re seeing organisms shaped like pyramids, triangles, squares and crescents.

Dr. Bonnie Baxter, Westminster College Microbiologist: "Completely novel sequences that don´t match up with anything in the databases. And one of our genome guys who was taking a look at these said this looks like alien DNA. It doesn´t match anything we have on earth."


Perhaps we have a bit of Mars right here on Earth especially since the microbes don't match up with anything in their databases. rolleyesNEW.gif I often wondered where the concept of the pyramid shape came from especially since it does not normally occur in nature on earth but could occur naturally on Mars. whistlingNEW2.gif




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Posted: Dec 7 2004, 11:50 PM
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But few earthly species survive in environments that are at the same time very cold, very acidic, and very salty — and none that do survive in such conditions produce methane.

“But maybe on Mars they do,” says Dr Kargel, the author of a recent book on the latest ideas about Mars. Or maybe, he suggests, the organisms that produced the Martian methane live in areas more hospitable than Meridiani Planum.


Kargel is right about that one. rolleyesNEW.gif

Methane-producing microbes dominate in hot spring

February 1, 2002

Scientists have identified a highly unusual community of methane-producing microbes in a hot spring 200 meters below ground in Idaho. The community may offer clues as to how life forms elsewhere in the universe survive in apparently hostile environments.

The microbes are able to live in such extreme conditions, researchers say, because they generate energy by combining carbon dioxide with hydrogen from rocks in the geothermal spring. This chemical process produces methane, and the microbes are called methanogens. They are members of the archaea family, an ancient branch of life distinct from plants, animals, and bacteria.

Francis H. Chapelle, of the US Geological Survey in Columbia, South Carolina, and colleagues analyzed DNA sequences recovered from the waters of Lidy Hot Springs in Idaho and found that more than 90 percent of the organisms were methanogens. This is the highest-known concentration of such microbes discovered so far in any one place.

"These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets," Chapelle and colleagues write in Nature.

The researchers collected the samples by boring a hole that tapped into the spring in a deep fracture zone about 200 meters underground. They isolated and sequenced DNA from the hot spring for phylogenic analysis. All but three of the 65 archaeal sequences appeared to be from methanogenic microbes.

http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/..._microbes.shtml

NASA was all over this story back in 2002 BTW and NASA was even mentioned in a caption below one of the images. whistlingNEW2.gif

QUOTE
Methanogens thrive in extreme environments such as geothermal springs.
Courtesy Tony Phillips, Science@NASA.


Methane generating microbes. rolleyesNEW.gif There must be an awful lot of them on Mars to be able to produce enough methane that could be detected in the atmosphere. wackoNEW.gif

Besides methane being detected, there was a significant and increasing amount of ammonia that was also detected.

QUOTE
Other microbes break amino acids down and generate ammonia - DEAMINATION

Often times released into soil - AMMONIFICATION

Highly diffusable through moist soil, used in amino acid synthesis

Nitrification

Not all ammonia used by plants, some moves to next step in cycle

Some organisms oxidize ammonia to produce nitrite (NO2-) - NITRIFICATION

Nitrite is further oxidized to nitrate (NO3-) - highly diffusable through soil

Is primary nitrogen source for synthesis of amino acids

Ammonia better source, not very diffusable through soil


http://216.239.39.104/search?q=cache:yLuDv...e+ammonia&hl=en

I think I'll throw some bacteria in as an excuse for the ammonia before NASA does.

QUOTE
Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a purple non-sulfur phototrophic bacterium commonly found in soils and water that makes its living by converting sunlight to cellular energy and by absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide and converting it to biomass. This microbe can also degrade and recycle a variety of aromatic compounds that comprise lignin, the main constituent of wood and the second most abundant polymer on earth. Because of its intimate involvement in carbon management and recycling, R. palustris has been selected by the DOE Carbon Management Program to have its genome sequenced by the JGI.
Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a common soil and water bacterium that makes its living by converting sunlight to cellular energy and by absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide and converting it to biomass. This microbe can also degrade and recycle components of the woody tissues of plants (wood is the most abundant polymer on earth). Because of its intimate involvement in carbon management and recycling, R. palustris was selected by the DOE Carbon Management Program for genome sequencing by the JGI.

R. palustris is acknowledged by microbiologists to be one of the most metabolically versatile bacteria ever described. Not only can it convert carbon dioxide gas into cell material but nitrogen gas into ammonia, and it can produce hydrogen gas. It grows both in the absence and presence of oxygen. In the absence of oxygen, it prefers to generate all its energy from light by photosynthesis.[/COLOR] It grows and increases its biomass by absorbing carbon dioxide, but it also can increase biomass by degrading organic compounds including such toxic compounds as 3chlorobenzoateto cellular building blocks. When oxygen is present, R. palustris generates energy by degrading a variety of carboncontaining compounds (including sugars, lignin monomers, and methanol) and by carrying out respiration.


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Posted: Dec 8 2004, 12:02 AM
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Could bacteria from Earth get to Mars and change the environment there? Why yes it could. rolleyesNEW.gif


Start small


14:32 13 October 00


Genetically engineered bacteria could be the first creatures to colonise the Red Planet, while rock-eating bugs could help release carbon dioxide from its crust.

The carbon dioxide would cause global warming, slowly making Mars warmer and moister. Ultimately, the hope is that terraforming Mars could make the planet hospitable to humans.

But special bacteria would probably be the first colonisers, says molecular biologist Julian Hiscox of the University of Reading. "We'd take Earth bacteria living in the conditions most similar to Mars and play Darwin, getting them closer by selection and genetic engineering," he told a Mars terraforming conference at NASA's Ames Research Center.

Antarctic bacteria, for instance, already endure temperatures well below freezing. By growing these cells at ever lower temperatures and selecting those that thrive, it will be possible to breed bugs suited to an extraterrestrial existence, Hiscox says.



Mix and match



The tools of molecular biology could improve them further by stealing traits from other Earth bacteria that could give them a vital edge on Mars. The wish list includes a tolerance of harsh chemicals, resistance to dryness and radiation and the ability to produce ultraviolet-absorbing proteins.

As well as protecting the cells, such UV "sunscreen" proteins could power them too, suggests Penelope Boston of the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. These proteins could be coupled to the existing photosynthetic machinery in bacteria, she says.

Boston also thinks that rock-digesting bacteria she has found in caves could help recycle trapped CO2 in Mars's crust.

On Earth, CO2 and other gases are released by the movement and re-cooking of huge tectonic plates. Mars doesn't have any similar tectonic activity. So she proposes establishing a "biotectonic" cycle instead, using communities of these microbes.

"Their work is extremely rapid," Boston says. When you walk by cave walls where these bacteria live, she says, "the rock is literally raining down".

For more reports from the Mars terraforming conference see New Scientist magazine on 21 October 2000.


Phillip Cohen at NASA Ames

http://biology.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsit...p%3Fid=ns999972


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Posted: Dec 8 2004, 12:11 AM
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R. palustris is acknowledged by microbiologists to be one of the most metabolically versatile bacteria ever described. Not only can it convert carbon dioxide gas into cell material but nitrogen gas into ammonia, and it can produce hydrogen gas.


Hydrogen gas. rolleyesNEW.gif

Mars may hold water ice under surface
Clue is hydrogen deposits in planet's southern hemisphere

May 30, 2002 Posted: 4:51 AM EDT (0851 GMT)

PASADENA, California (CNN) - Instruments aboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft have detected substantial amounts of hydrogen just under the surface of the planet Mars, according to mission scientists.

They say they believe the hydrogen is most likely in the form of water ice.

Researchers announced preliminary findings from Mars Odyssey in March, when early data from an instrument called the gamma ray spectrometer showed evidence of vast deposits of hydrogen in Mars' southern hemisphere.

Full scientific details are to be published in the May 31 edition of the journal Science. Additionally, NASA plans to hold a news conference on Thursday to announce more specifics about the quantities and distribution of the ice.

Experts say the confirmation of ice on Mars could answer a question that's nagged them for years: Despite the fact that the surface of Mars now appears dry as bone, much physical evidence -- including channels on the landscape -- suggests that water once flowed there.

Researchers have long been puzzled about where the water went. Now, the new findings suggest that it could have gone underground.

Does the possible presence of water on Mars mean life exists there? Scientists say it raises the chances, but it's by no means conclusive.

If life exists there now, it's most likely in the form of some type of microbe. Experts say the best chance for finding conclusive evidence of such life would involve a "sample return mission." A unmanned probe would land on the planet, scoop up a soil sample that might harbor these Martian microbes, and then return it to earth for analysis.

The new Mars Odyssey data on water distribution could help scientists target such a probe to land in a promising area. NASA has discussed launching a sample return mission this decade, but so far none is scheduled.

Mars Odyssey was launched on April 7, 2001, and reached Mars in October. The craft began returning data in February and is scheduled to remain on duty in Mars orbit until August 2004.

http://archives.cnn.com/2002/TECH/space/05....water/?related


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Posted: Dec 8 2004, 12:16 AM
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Mars Theory Not Just Hot Air


By Michelle Delio | Also by this reporter Page 1 of 1

02:00 AM Mar. 01, 2004 PT

Astronomers have detected hydrogen peroxide, or H2O2, in the atmosphere of Mars, proving a 30-year-old theory about the planet's atmospheric chemistry.

It's the first time a chemical catalyst of this sort has been found in a planetary atmosphere other than the Earth's, said Douglas Pierce-Price at the Joint Astronomy Centre in Hawaii, where the observation was made.

The presence of H2O2 confirmed what had already been advanced as the most likely model for the Martian atmosphere, which was developed based upon scientists' understanding of Earth's chemistry. So detecting H2O2 in the Martian atmosphere also confirms astronomers' ability to understand the very different conditions observed in the atmosphere of another planet based on what they already know about the Earth.

"We can now say how the amounts of the more abundant chemical components we had already measured -- carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, carbon monoxide and oxygen -- fit together in a balance that involves the sunlight falling on the Mars atmosphere and chemical reactions among the various chemical components of the atmosphere," said Todd Clancy of the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado. Clancy headed up the Mars' atmospheric research team.

"This is the kind of balance we've figured out to understand ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, and the lessons we learned in determining what key chemical species control terrestrial ozone levels are what allowed us to understand Mars atmospheric chemistry."

Scientific models developed several decades ago had predicted that hydrogen peroxide was the key catalytic chemical that controls the atmospheric chemistry of Mars, but until now scientists were unable to detect a sufficient amount of H2O2, causing some researchers to argue that the models were wrong.

But, using the Joint Astronomy Centre's James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, the largest astronomical radio telescope in the world designed specifically to operate in the sub-millimeter-wavelength region of the spectrum, astronomers were able to stare at Mars and look for the particular wavelength that would indicate the presence of H2O2 absorption ("light" at about 0.8-millimeter wavelength).

"After roughly one hour of spectral measurements of Mars, I could see the absorption stand out from the background noise of Mars sub-millimeter emission," said Clancy. "I was actually doing the real-time analysis at my home on an island off the coast of North Carolina, via telephone and Internet connections with my observing colleagues, Brad and Gerald, who were at the observatory on Mauna Kea.

"I have a particular fondness for real-time observing, where an aspect of nature no one has ever seen before reveals itself to me, because I am the first to look with a very sophisticated kind of 'window,'" Clancy added. "And this time the signal from Mars was much stronger than I expected, mainly because the H2O2 was there in abundance, and Mars was in a special season and angular size to show it off to me."

That special season Clancy refers to is this past summer's opposition of Mars, when the planet was closer to Earth than it had ever been in recorded history. It was an especially favorable time since the opposition occurred when Mars was at its warmest, when the most H2O2 is available to observe.

The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope observation team was able detect the expected amount (about 20 H2O2 molecules per billion CO2 molecules) showing that the 30-year-old theory of Mars atmospheric chemistry actually works. Their findings have since been confirmed by a French research team that had questioned whether H2O2 was the key catalytic chemical controlling Mars' atmospheric chemistry, based on their own infrared measurement studies of Mars. The confirmation came through e-mail.

"As for further confirmation of our current theory, I am willing to see our ideas proved or disproved; nature will be what it is," said Clancy.

NASA's MER rovers, currently on the surface of Mars, won't be of any significant help in furthering atmospheric studies, said Clancy. The rovers are making some unique measurements of temperatures in the bottom one to two kilometers of the atmosphere, which is hard to do otherwise. But MER is a predominantly geological mission.

Many previous atmospheric discoveries about Mars, including most of the chemistry measurements, were obtained from ground-based observation. The discovery of Mars' unique climate, with its belt of water ice clouds encircling the planet every year when it is farthest from the sun, was made in the mid-1990s, using ground-based radio telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope.

But Clancy and his team are looking forward to receiving detailed data on the atmosphere of Mars from two space missions, the European Space Agency's Mars Express, which is now in orbit, and NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which is slated to be launched in 2005.

The atmospheric observations of Clancy's Mars team will be fully detailed in the March issue of the American Astronomical Society's journal Icarus.

http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,62469,00.html


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Posted: Dec 8 2004, 01:16 AM
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... the Great Salt Lake ... drying up even more this year from years of drought ...
With levels now at a 30-year low, the salt in portions of the shrinking lake has reached saturation levels ten times the salinity of seawater.

Alarming information on the drought cause it's gonna get worse.

There's always life where you least expect to find it and in the harshest climates.

I don't doubt Mars has life. I'd even bet there are colonies of human looking people there - underground. But I see chemtrails too.

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Thanks for the posts Seralia. Interesting information!
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Posted: Dec 8 2004, 01:35 PM
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QUOTE (PuPP @ Dec 8 2004, 01:16 AM)
There's always life where you least expect to find it and in the harshest climates.

I don't doubt Mars has life. I'd even bet there are colonies of human looking people there - underground. But I see chemtrails too.

Yes life does seem to exist in the harshest of climates with and without oxygen especially the R. palustris bacteria and I don't doubt that there could be intellignet life elsewhere in the Universe that could have a completely different biochemistry than we have. There might even be some forms of life totally alien to us that view Earth as a planet with a harsh climate and deadly atmosphere.

Did Bacteria Survive Trip from Mars?

posted: 04:54 pm ET
12 January 2000

ATLANTA (Reuters) - Astronomers reported on Wednesday they had found a tough but peaceful pair of bacteria that might have been able to survive the arduous trip from Mars, back when the Red Planet could have supported life.

"They are simply happy creatures,'' scientist Curt Mileikowsky said of the two bacteria strains that were tested for road-hardiness in a Swedish lab. "They don't cause any disease, they are very peaceful.''

But were they the first visitors from Mars?

The bacteria -- Bacillus subtilis (wild) and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 -- are resistant to high speeds, extreme heat and radiation.

These properties would be necessary to survive a voyage by meteoroid from Mars to Earth, Mileikowsky, of the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, and others reported at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta.

For the last half-century, most scientists believed life on Earth originated from simple inorganic molecules that might have been zapped by lightning or nurtured in oceans.

Now research in Sweden, Canada and Finland suggests another possibility: Tiny living things -- such as these two hardy bacteria -- may have traveled between Earth, Mars, Venus and Mercury when the planetary system was young.

This is given some credence by the discovery in 1997 of a meteorite in Antarctica that some believe contains traces of fossilized life from Mars.

When warm was warm and wet

In the earliest days, 4.5 billion years or so ago, Mars might well have been warm and wet enough to foster life. Scientists still do not know what turned it into the cold, barren place it is now.

The mode of travel would have been meteoroids, big chunks of rock blasted out of the Martian surface by a colliding comet, the astronomers said.

If microscopic life was present on Mars at the point of contact, whatever survived the blast's concussion and heat and managed to escape Mars' gravitational pull could have been on its way to Earth or some other planet, according to the scientists.

And if it also was able to resist bombardment by radiation in space, it might have landed safely on Earth.

In the first 500 million years after the planets formed, Mileikowsky said, 50 billion potentially life-carrying rocks landed on Earth from Mars. In the last four billion years or so, only five billion such bodies have come to Earth.

The traffic in the other direction was not as heavy: 10 billion possible life-carrying objects are believed to have flown from Earth to Mars in the first 500 million years, with only one billion going in the last four billion years.

The problem is to determine whether any of these bodies did in fact carry life, and then to find out where life began if it did not originate on Earth.

The astronomers believe it probably began in our solar system, with a very slim chance that it started elsewhere. Astronomer Sun Kwok of the University of Calgary in Canada theorized that organic molecules may be ejected by old stars, and some of what is tossed out could land on Earth.

"Life would have had an easier time developing on Earth'' if this was the case, Kwok said at a briefing.

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/sola..._000112_wg.html


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Posted: Dec 8 2004, 01:54 PM
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More evidence of the existence of Martian bacteria was found in December of 2000.

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December 13: Evidence for magnetotactic bacteria on Mars. A team of astrobiologists working under a NASA grant concludes that some of the magnetite found in a Mars meteorite can only be produced by bacteria. Earlier analyses had found that the magnetite is from Mars, so it appears to have been produced there by magnetotactic bacteria. The meteorite, known as ALH84001, became famous after 7 August 1996, when evidence in it of fossilized microscopic life was first announced by some of the same astrobiologists who made the new analysis. That original evidence has been challenged, especially after studies released in March found that earthly contamination of meteorites is common. The new analysis meticulously reinforces the 1996 case for ancient life on Mars.


http://www.panspermia.org/whatsne17.htm

I also found some microbes that breathe methane. rolleyesNEW.gif

Scientists Explore Genome Of Methane-Breathing Microbe

Rockville MD (SPX) Sep 22, 2004

QUOTE
The first complete genome sequence of a methane-breathing bacterium has revealed a surprising flexibility in its metabolism, suggesting an ability to live successfully in environments previously thought to be beyond its reach.
The genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus – a species typical of methane-breathing bacteria commonly found in soils, landfills, sediments and peat bogs – includes a full and at times redundant toolkit of genes for using methane as an energy and carbon source. Such methane-consuming microbes are called methanotrophs.

The study, to be published in the October issue of PLoS Biology and posted online this week, found an unexpected flexibility in M. capsulatus metabolic pathways, hinting that the bacterium is capable of responding to changes in its environment by functioning through different chemical pathways for using methane.

That finding, if confirmed by later experiments, may increase the bacterium's potential as a biotech workhorse.

Methanotrophs play an important role in the global energy cycle because they consume methane, a gas that is produced mostly by chemical processes in landfills, in the guts of ruminant livestock such as cows, and by oil and natural gas processing plants.


http://www.spacedaily.com/news/life-04zzzu.html

There's even microbes that breathe rust that would come in handy cleaning up all the NASA junk on Mars.

Rust-Breathing Bacteria: Miracle Microbes?

John Roach
for National Geographic News
April 12, 2004

QUOTE
They breathe rust, clean up polluted groundwater, generate electricity, and may harbor clues to the origins of life. That's a lot for one family of microscopic bugs, but don't be surprised when Derek Lovley wows the world with another wonder from the Geobacter genus of bacteria.

"When we think we have hit the last of the big discoveries, something else comes along," said Lovley, a microbiologist at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

The microbes' metabolism is unique: They use metals to get energy from food in the same way humans use oxygen. In 1987 Lovley discovered Geobacter metallreducens in some iron-rich mud he scooped up from the Potomac River.

In the 17 years since that discovery, Lovley and his colleagues have found more than 30 species in the bug family, sequenced the genomes of several, and filled scientific journals with the details of new insights.


QUOTE
After receiving his Ph.D. from Michigan State University in 1982, Lovley took a job with the United States Geological Survey studying how microorganisms affected groundwater in the Chesapeake Bay.

He knew that microorganisms could live in oxygen-deprived environments by processing things such as sulfate and methane. If they could do that, Lovely reasoned, they might also be able to make a living from iron. Which is why, in 1987, Lovely scooped up the iron-rich mud from the Potomac River just downstream from Washington, D.C. Unbeknownst to him, the microbes therein would change his life.


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Posted: Dec 8 2004, 02:20 PM
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The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope observation team was able detect the expected amount (about 20 H2O2 molecules per billion CO2 molecules) showing that the 30-year-old theory of Mars atmospheric chemistry actually works. Their findings have since been confirmed by a French research team that had questioned whether H2O2 was the key catalytic chemical controlling Mars' atmospheric chemistry, based on their own infrared measurement studies of Mars. The confirmation came through e-mail.


I've read a few arguments about Mars being harmful to microbial life due to the presense of hydrogen peroxide in the atmosphere. Of course the readings were 20 hydrogen peroxide molecules per a billion carbon dioxide molecules which I would have to say would not be fatal to microbial or even bacterial life for that matter. Also there are quite a few people that don't know that there are species of microbes that produce hydrogen peroxide so the presense of hydrogen peroxide in the Martian atmosphere could be an indication of the existence of microbial life.

Microbes that produce hydrogen peroxide reduce obstetrical complications
Bacterial Vaginosis

May 3, 2004

2004 MAY 3 - (NewsRx.com & NewsRx.net) -- Microbes that produce hydrogen peroxide reduce obstetrical complications.

QUOTE
According to recent research published in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, "lactobacilli, principally the strains that are hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing, may have a protective effect against vaginal colonization by pathogenic species such as those that cause bacterial vaginosis. Previous reports have also suggested that H2O2-producing lactobacilli in the vagina may protect pregnant women against ascending infection of the chorioamniotic membranes and uterine cavity.


QUOTE
"The most commonly isolated species were Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri, L. vaginalis and L. jensenii. Amounts of H2O2 produced by lactobacilli varied widely. The presence of lactobacilli producing high levels of H2O2 in the vagina of this population of pregnant women was associated with a reduced risk of bacterial vaginosis at 20 weeks' gestation and subsequent chorioamnionitis. L. jensenii and L. vaginalis produced the highest levels of H2O2.


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Posted: Dec 8 2004, 11:14 PM
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Holy Robinson Crusoe on Mars
Seralia
Great work,
reminds me of me in the old GLP days.
Much of what you have exposed was well summed up in the best thread ever on GLP,
Kent Steadman started called
Blue Balls on mars.
I did a blue ribbon research accomplishment on that one, and it was all lost in the archives purge.
I had contacted Elaine to get a copy of it just before the big hack a while ago, and now it is lost.

I hope to have the time to fully review your material.

High concentrations of atmospheric H2O2 was mentioned in a NASA release as the reason that
life could not be evolving on the surface.

Evolutionary processes obviously negate the silly NASA position.
Also changing atmospheric conditions with the ever more presence of water, also
offers life.

Here is something that was saved from the Blue Balls on mars thread
Now Check this out about Catalase.
Mars life adapts with catalase like on Earth?

"Cant have life on Mars with Hydrogen Peroxide in the atmosphere...?"

First,
H2O2 formation :

Hydrogen Peroxide is created in the atmosphere when ultraviolet light strikes oxygen in the presence of moisture. Ozone (03) is free oxygen (02) plus an extra atom of oxygen. When it comes into contact with water, this extra atom of oxygen splits off very easily. Water (H20) combines with the extra atom of oxygen and becomes hydrogen peroxide ( H2O2).



http://www.wonderquest.com/peroxide-biggest-heart-ice.htm


A: How does hydrogen peroxide "know"? It doesn’t. The driving force is not the chemical but rather living cells. Most cells (like blood in a cut) cause hydrogen peroxide to change into water and oxygen gas, which, in turn, bubbles and fizzes. However, cells must produce a catalyst to force hydrogen peroxide to change. Some cells can manufacture the catalyst and some can’t.

Living cells as different as oysters and oak can produce the catalyst. However, lactic acid bacteria (found now in dairy products like yogurt) or the bacteria causing botulism or gangrene cannot. Also, nonliving objects such as dirt or oil cannot manufacture the catalyst ***(called catalase).

***Most cells learned to make catalase to solve a vicious problem. When cells metabolize food in the presence of oxygen, most produce hydrogen peroxide as a side product. Hydrogen peroxide kills cells. The dilemma: cells must extract energy from food to live. But the process can produce a poison that kills them. The solution: manufacture a rescue catalyst that changes hydrogen peroxide to harmless water and oxygen and make that reaction happen: fast!

Therein lies a tale. When Earth was young and lacked oxygen — a couple of billion years ago — simple lactic acid bacteria probably developed first. These bacteria do not use an oxygen-rich atmosphere to metabolize food (there wasn’t any oxygen) and therefore don’t produce hydrogen peroxide. They ducked the problem. Pour hydrogen peroxide on crushed cheese or yogurt and it won’t fizz. They never learned to make the rescue catalyst because they didn’t produce the poison.

Later, but still eons ago, "strict anaerobes", such as the bacteria that cause botulism and gangrene, developed when Earth’s atmosphere still had no oxygen. Then, they were OK since hydrogen peroxide is an oxygen compound and can’t form without oxygen. Now, these bacteria exist in extreme danger. You see, the anaerobe bacteria do generate hydrogen peroxide when they metabolize food but they don’t make the rescue catalyst. Now, strict anaerobes can live only in an airless environment like deep wounds and airtight containers.

Finally, Earth’s atmosphere became oxygen rich. Disaster! Peroxide killed cells as the cells converted food to energy and produced hydrogen peroxide.
*** Cells solved the problem by contriving catalase. Almost all advanced organisms since make catalase and convert hydrogen peroxide to fizzy oxygen and water. Pour peroxide on crushed fruit or leaves, wait a few minutes, and watch the bubbles.

By the way, white blood cells engulf germs and then kill the germs by bathing them in poison — hydrogen peroxide. (Related: video images showing how white blood cells kill bacteria with H2O2)

=============================

I saved very little from that thread.on the Blue Balls of mars
here is another kibble and bit

Desert life hot and cold

Most of the algae exist on quartzite rocks, which are translucent and therefore allow photosynthesis to occur. These species are also characteristic of other hot and cold deserts, as discussed above.

The bands and surfaces represent hypolithic algae, (i.e., algae that grow on the lower surfaces of translucent stones, partially embedded in the soil; Fig. 5). The apparent reason algae retreat to and exist in this habitat is the increased level of protection from intolerable levels of irradiation, high temperatures, and arid surface conditions,

In any case, the rocks hold moisture after a
wetting event--{V-note-melting of permafrost layers, seep layer surges of underground aquifers etc}
longer than soil uncovered by rocks. As discussed by (Friedmann et al., 1967), microbial life is possible under those rocks which are translucent and able to transmit light sufficient for photosynthesis.

Instead, these microbes appear to thrive on chemical energy in basalt, a rock common to Earth and Mars, ....this community of microbes exists on a diet of mostly hydrogen....consume hydrogen given off by a reaction between basalt and groundwater....mixed samples of crushed basalt and groundwater, which resulted in hydrogen production. ...If the SLiME derives energy from iron-rich minerals in basalt, it could explain how organisms survived on Earth before the evolution of photosynthesis....Until recently, experts believed that all water under the surface of Mars was frozen, but conventional wisdom is moving toward the idea that there is liquid water within the Red Planet. If that is true, then the subsurface conditions on Mars are similar to the basalt and water subsurface environments of the Columbia Basin area.

==========================

"We see features that look like gullies formed by flowing water and the deposits of soil and rocks transported by these flows. The features appear to be so young that they might be forming today. We think we are seeing evidence of a ground water supply, similar to an aquifer," said Dr. Michael Malin, principal investigator for the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft at Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS), San Diego, CA. "These are new landforms that have never been seen before on Mars."

***The water supply is believed to be about 100 to 400 meters (300 to 1300 feet) below the surface, and limited to specific regions across the planet. Each flow that came down each gully may have had a volume of water of, roughly, 2500 cubic meters (about 90,000 cubic feet) -- about enough water to sustain 100 average households for a month or fill seven community-sized swimming pools. The process that starts the water flowing remains a mystery,
**** but the team believes it is not the result of volcanic heating.

So how can these gullies form? Malin explained that the process must involve repeated outbursts of water and debris, similar to flash floods on Earth. "








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